Militia force of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is a mass armed organization engaged in production under the leadership of the Communist Part of China. It is a component of the armed forces of the PRC, and the assistant and reserve force of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army as well as the basic organizational form of the reserve service. Militia force is the reserve armed force of the state. The National Defense Law of the PRC stipulates that “the militia force, under command of the military organs, is tasked to conduct war preparedness service and defensive operations and assist safeguarding public security.”To ensure accomplishment of this task, there should be various basic systems on militia work. China’s militia force building in the new period has already achieved great success. The leadership system of militia organization under the leadership of the State Council and the Central Military Commission has been established in form of law. The General Staff Headquarters supervises militia work nationwide. The military area commands are responsible for militia work in their respective jurisdictions. Provincial military commands, prefectural military commands and people’s armed forces departments of counties (country-level cities) are the organs of military leadership and command. The grass-roots people’s armed forces departments established in townships (towns), urban sub-districts, enterprises and public institutions are responsible for organizing and carrying out militia work. Local Party committees and governments at all levels make overall plans and arrangements for militia work.
After the National Militia Meeting on Border and Coastal Defense in 1987, to strengthen building of the national defense reserve force, the work to organize the militia emergency elements started. The militia emergency elements are a force to deal with sudden events and safeguard social stability. After over 10 years’building, the militia emergency elements organized in big and middle cities and important border and coastal areas have become a contingent with basically modernized weapons, equipment and communication devices. It has good qualities, can be quickly mobilized and has better fighting capabilities. The building of the militia professional elements is also strengthened at the same time when strengthening building of the militia emergency elements.
Militia system. The Military Service Law of the PRC stipulates that militia organizations are established in townships, ethnic townships, towns, enterprises and public institutions. Male citizens, at the age of 18 to 35 and qualified for performing military service, are all put in militia organization to perform reserve service except those who perform active service. Militia is divided into primary militia and ordinary militia. Demobilized soldiers and personnel received military training below the age of 28 and personnel selected to take part in military training are put in primary militia organization. The rest of the male citizens at the age of 18 to 35 are put in ordinary militia organization. There are only primary militiawomen with an appropriate proportion of number. In border areas, costal areas, ethnic areas and cities having special situation, the age of the primary militia can be properly extended. Militia must be good in health and politically reliable.
The Military Service Law stipulates for conducting the system of combining militia with reserve service. (1) the primary militia is the reserve service of first category while the ordinary militia is the reserve service of secondary category; (2) ages and political and health conditions of those who join militia organization and who perform reserve service should be consistent; and (3) at the places where there are militia organizations, militia and reserve service are combined in grass-root work to make militia organization become the basic organizational form of reserve service. Those who are not put in militia organization but accord with militia qualifications register for reserve service.
Militia grouping. Militia, according to number in a township (town), administrative village, factory or a mine, is grouped into squad, platoon, company, battalion and regiment respectively. Primary militia, ordinary militia, militiamen and militiawomen are grouped separately. Militia in an administrative village is generally grouped into a company (battalion) to lead primary militia and ordinary militia of the village. Enterprises under a county or township (town), having stable personnel, administrative organization, and Party and League organizations, can establish militia organization under direct leadership of the township (town). Primary militia battalion or company of a township (town) leads primary militia of the whole township. For militia grouping in cities, militia is grouped by workshop or sub-factory in a large-sized factory or a mine. For middle and small-sized enterprises, militia can be grouped by trans-workshops.
Militia training. Training of the militia cadres and primary militia is organized and conducted by county (city, district) people’s armed forces department in principle. According to requirements of the training program, training of cadres lasts 30 days, generally completed in a year, and training of militia lasts 15 days, completed in one time. Through training, militia cadres can possess relevant military techniques and command capabilities as well as enhance their capabilities to do their own job well; militias learn how to use weapons and equipment in their hands and master the basic military techniques; and militia elements can shoulder general combat missions. Militia cadres mainly have training of their own-level command and teaching methods. The primary militias have basic technical and tactical training. At present, many county-level training bases are established, at where militias have concentrated training. Some technical training centers are also organized to meet the needs. These training bases and centers can provide food, accommodation and training. With regard to the teaching means, auto-visual teaching and simulation training are widely spread to conduct image and object teaching, as a result, quality of teaching is greatly enhanced. As focus of training is very clear, so training of the emergency elements and professional elements is further strengthened.
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